Abstract The 2nd International Conference on Controversies in Vitamin D was held in Monteriggioni (Siena), Italy, September 11- 14, 2018. The aim of this meeting was to address ongoing controversies and timely topics in vitamin D research, to review available data related to these topics and controversies, to promote discussion to help resolve lingering issues and ultimately to suggest a research agenda to clarify areas of uncertainty. Several issues from the first conference, held in 2017, were revisited, such as assays used to determine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, which remains a critical and controversial issue for defining vitamin D status. Definitions of vitamin D nutritional status (i.e. sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency) were also revisited. New areas were reviewed, including vitamin D threshold values and how they should be defined in the context of specific diseases, sources of vitamin D and risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Non-skeletal aspects related to vitamin D were also discussed, including the reproductive system, neurology, chronic kidney disease and falls. The therapeutic role of vitamin D and findings from recent clinical trials were also addressed. The topics were considered by 3 focus groups and divided into three main areas: 1) “Laboratory”: assays and threshold values to define vitamin D status; 2) “Clinical”: sources of vitamin D and risk factors and role of vitamin D in non-skeletal disease and 3) “Therapeutics”: controversial issues on observational studies and recent randomized controlled trials. In this report, we present a summary of our findings.